macro and micro skills of speaking

the problems of foreign language communication in a polylogue are considered. the charasterisic features of polylogue as a form of group communication and  the parameters of an effective  polylogue are studied. the article gives an overview of speaking micro and macro skills and provides a number of tasks to develop these skills. higher school students are challenged with the lack of conversation practice while learning a foreign language.

current trends in education, namely blended learning and computer-assisted language learning, underlie the growing interest to the task of automatically generating language exercises. this paper gives an overview of a computer system called exercise maker that is aimed at flexible and versatile language exercise generation. an important feature of the system is the automatic ranking of the source passages according to their complexity/readability. the article describes an effective method of automatic generation of word-formation exercises in the format similar to cambridge certificate exams and russian state exam. exercises generated with the presented method can be used in preparation for taking the above exams, as well as in teaching / learning english, namely for developing lexico-grammatical and reading skills.

in primary classroom today, students need to master the four language skills. the last language skill that students must master it is writing. speaking tasks in which students try to use any or all of the language they know feedback for both teacher and students. speaking activities give more advantage students the change to experiment with the language they already know in different situation and on different topic. according to hadfield and hadfield (1999:3) that speaking lesson is a kind of bridge for learners between the classroom and the world outside. the elements of speaking skill in order to be able to speak in another language and make oneself understood, it is usually not necessary to reach a perfect level of competence and control. ability to use proper rhythm and stress in the language and to make proper pauses.

the necessary background knowledge (content, propositions) is not shared by the speaker and the hearer, and they bring a different set of expectations to the spoken interaction. speaking activities and speaking practice in the classroom should enable students to gain experiences using all the prerequisites for effective oral communication that have been mentioned. a whole situation is simulated in the classroom, and the participants adopt roles which belong to it. the first group observes the feeling of individual, special characters that are expected in situation and the way to respond their character. by simulating reality, they allow beginning students and efl students to feel that they are really using the language for a communicative purpose. where students make up their own dialogue, they provide a special opportunity to go beyond what has been taught in class and to draw on the full range of their language competencies. the students will be trained to be initiative and creative.

micro and macro skills of speaking. criteria for assessment. micro- skills: phonemes, words, collocations, phrasal units what are micro and macro skills? micro- skills: phonemes, words, collocations, phrasal units. they include production english stress patterns, reduced forms, production of fluent speech, use of strategic devices (pauses, fillers). macro- skills: fluency, discourse, function, style, cohesion, nonverbal communication. micro and macro skills in speaking: creating situations for their development. p. 125-127. rodomanchenko a., macro and micro skills of language, macro skills of speaking, macro skills of speaking, macro and micro skills of reading, micro and macro skills of listening. the micro-skill is concerned to produce the smaller chunks of language such as phonemes, morphemes, words, collocations, fluency and phrasal units. while, the macro-skill implies the speaker\’s focus on the larger elements such as accuracy, discourse, style, cohesion, nonverbal communication, and strategic option.

here are some of the micro- and macro skills involved in speaking which are stated by brown (2004:142). micro- and key words: l2 writing skills, macro-skills, micro-skills, developmental trends, cefr, ielts language learners’ skills, including listening, speaking, reading and writing, are. recognize cohesive devices in spoken discourse. 2. macroskills recognize the communicative functions of utterance, speaking micro skills, micro skills of listening, micro and macro skills of writing, micro and macro skills of speaking by brown, macro skills in communication, macro skills of reading, thesis about macro skills, listening macro skills

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